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A content analysis of precede-proceed constructs in stress management mobile apps

	author = {Hannah E. Payne and Jessica Wilkinson and Joshua H. West and Jay M. Bernhardt},
	title = {A content analysis of precede-proceed constructs in stress management mobile apps},
	journal = {mHealth},
	volume = {2},
	number = {2},
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Background: The emergence of Apple’s iPhone provides a platform for freelance developers to design
third party apps, which greatly expands the functionality and utility of mobile devices for stress management.
This study provides a basic overview of the stress management apps under the health and fitness category of
the Apple App store and appraises each app’s potential for influencing behavior change.
Methods: Data for this study came from a content analysis of health and fitness app descriptions available in
the App Store on iTunes. Trained research assistants used the Precede-Proceed Model (PPM) as a framework
to guide the coding of paid stress management apps and to evaluate each app’s potential for effecting health
behavior change.
Results: Most apps were rated as being plausible (96.9%) and intending to address stress management
(98.5%), but only 63.3% were rated as recommendable to others for their use. Reinforcing apps were less
common than predisposing and enabling apps. Less than one percent (0.39%) of apps included all three
factors (predisposing, enabling and reinforcing).
Conclusions: Practitioners should be cautious when promoting the use of stress management apps, as
most provide only health-related information (predisposing) or suggestions for enabling behavior, but almost
none include all three theoretical factors recommended for behavior change.},
	issn = {2306-9740},	url = {}